Telangana History


Telangana region has been ruled by many great dynasties like Sathavahanas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, asafjahis. Of which the Kakathiyas impressions on architecture are found more in these days too.           Sathavahanas ruled over the Telangana for about 400 years from the 2nd century B.C. to beyond the 2nd century A.D. Sathavahanas were also called Salivahanas and Satakarnis. In the 3rd century B.C., Simukha, the founder of the Sathavahana dynasty, unified the various Andhra principalities into one kingdom and became its ruler (271 B.C. -- 248 B.C.).Satakarni II, the sixth ruler of the dynasty (184 B.C.) was an able ruler who extended his kingdom to the west. He ruled for a period of 56 years. Pulumavi I have brought renewed strength and glory to their kingdom. The only silver lining in this dynasty was the excellent literary work, Gathasaptasati, of Hala, the 17th Satavahana king. Dharmapuri in Karimnagar was the capital city for many years.


          Among Kakathiyas, Prataparudra, grandson of Rudramamba was great ruler who succeeded his grandmother in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Vijayanagara Rayas.


          During the reign of Bahamani sultan Mohd Shah III, one sultan Quli Qutub, who was born at Hamadan in Persia, came to Deccan and started his career as a bodyguard of Mohd Shah. With his ability and courage he raised from one position to another till he became the Governor of Telangana, the eastern province of Bahmani kingdom.


          When the Bahamani sultanate became weak, Quli Qutub became independent and formed his Qutubshahi Dynasty in 1518. From then, he devoted most of his energies in extending his frontiers of his kingdom. He took possession of part of Berar in the north, Rajkonda, Deverkonda, Gahanpura, Kovilakonda and Panagal thus brought much of Telugu speaking areas in to his possession. He defeated Sitapati of Bhogikala, and captured Bellamkonda, Indrakonda, Khammam; Warangal etc. in 1543 Jamsheed assassinated Quli Qutub.


          The Golkonda fort was built by Quliqutub. His son Jamsheed became the King who was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim in 1550 .During his reign, trade and commerce flourished enormously. Telangana, like Egypt, became the Mart of the whole world. Merchants from Turkistan, Arabia and Persia used to frequent Telangana and found their trade attractive and prosperous. In his reign two tanks namely Ibrahim Pantam tank and Hussainsagar were built. He also built a bridge on river Musi, which is known as Puranapul. The Hindus of Telangana remember him for his patronage of Telugu literature. Many Telugu poets like Addanki Gangadher Kavi, Panuganti Telanganarya, Kandukuri Rudra Kavi flourished in his court. He gained goodwill among his Hindu subjects. He died in 1580, and was succeeded by his son Quli Qutub Shah.

          Qutubshah shifted his capital from Golkonda to Hyderabad on the river Musi. He built the Jamia mosque at Charminar. He died in 1611. He was succeeded by his nephew Mohd. Qutubshah as he had no sons. Mohd Qutub Shah joined the confederation of Deccani powers against Moughals to stop their advance towards Deccan/South. He was a scholar and composed gazals, tarki, bunds and rubaya. He died in 1662, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Sayyed Ahmed in 1667.

          At this time the Moughals annexed Ahmednagar and marched towards Golkonda. Sayyed Ahmed signed the treaty, and accepted the suzerainity of Moughal emporer Shah Jahan and agreed to pay 8 lakhs of rupees as tribute to Moughlals. 


          With the connivance of mirjumla the Mughal Emperor Aurgangzeb sent his son Mohd. Sultan in 1656, who besiezed Golkonda and occupied Hyderabad. However on intervention of Darashekou and Jahanara from Delhi, Aurangazeb was compelled to raise the seize on payment of one crore and to surrender Chinnoor. Later Mohd Sultan married the second daughter of Abdullah. Abdullah died in 1672 and his son-in-law Abul Hassan succeeded him. He appointed Madanna as his Prime Minister and his brother Akkanna as commander in chief. In 1687 Auragazeb again attacked Golkonda which successfully resisted -his advance. But due to treachery of Sardar Khan a high officer in the Army who opened the gate of Golkonda fort, captured the fort in 1687 and Abul Hassan was made captive. They looted the city in every street and market place where lakhs worth in cash, property, chinaware and costly carpets of aristocracy was available.


          The State of Hyderabad was founded by Mir Qamruddin Chin Qilich Khan. He was the son of Aurangzeb's general . Ghazi-ud-din Khan Feroz Jang, who traced his ancestry to Abu Bakr, the first Khalifa. In 1713, six years after Aurangzeb's death, emperor Farrukhsiyar made Mir Qamruddin Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk Feroz Jang. Later, emperor Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah, by which title the dynasty is still known. By 1724, Mir Qamruddin had made himself virtually independent of Delhi, although he and his successors continued to profess a nominal allegiance to the Moghul emperor right up to 1858, when the British Crown assumed the governance of India.


          In 1799 the Nizam aided the East India Company in the war with Tippu Sultan and after the latter’s defeat and death, the British gave a part of his territories to the Nizam.


          The death of Nizam All Khan and the succession of his eldest surviving son, Sikander Jah, occured on 7 August 1803.


          Sikander Jah died on 21 May 1829, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, nasir-ud-Daula. By the Treaty of 1853, the province of Berar, along with certain districits in the Raichur Doab and on the wertern frontier of Hyderabad, were assigned for this purpose, their administration being taken over by British officers under the control of the Resident at Hyderabad.


          By the Treaty of 1860, except for Berar, all the other districts assigned in 1853 were restored.

          Mir Mahbub Ali Khan was a minor when he succeeded his father afzal-ud-Daula on 26 February 1869.


         The Hyderabad contingent with the exception of the artillery which was disbanded, was delocalized and incorporated in the Indian Army, with provision for the protection of the Nizam's dominion.


         Nizam Mir Usman Ali Khan Bahadur is the seventh in the line. He succeeded to the gaddi on 29 August 1911. In 1918 the title of "is Exalted Highness" was conferred on him as a hereditary distinction. Shortly thereafter, by an autograph letter from the King, he was granted the title of 'Faithful Ally of the British Government.'


        Geographically, Hyderabad occupies a pivotal position in the heart of the country. In population, revenue and importance it was the premier State in the country. The population was nearly sixteen million and the annual revenue Rs. 26 crores. Its area was over 82,000 square miles. Hyderabad had its own coinage, paper currency and stamps. Hyderabad was treated by the British no differently from other Indian States. The right of intervention in internal affairs was repeatedly asserted and exercised.


       In 1985  Reading, then Viceroy, ascertained that the sovereignty of the British Crown was supreme in India. The Viceroy pointed out that it was the right of the British Government to intervene in the internal affairs of Indian States, and that the Nizam did not stand in a category separate from that of rulers of the other Indian states.


       In March 1946 the cabinet mission advised the princely states regarding the future of their merger after the formation of independent India, and separate Pakistan for Indian Muslims. This was further clarified in May 1946 referring to the lapse of paramountency and formation of federation. The congress opposed the Independent states outside the Federal Union, but the Muslim league was encouraging the states to remain Independent. Nizam of Hyderabad was   under the influence of a fanatical body called Ittehadul Musulmin under Kasim Razvi, declared his intention to remain as independent state.


       Soon after the announcement of His Majesty's Government's plan of 3 June 1947, the Nizam issued a firman declaring his intention not to send representatives to the Constituent Assembly of either Pakistan or India, and making it clear that on 15 August he would be entitled to resume the status of an independent sovereign. It had been his ambition to secure Dominion Status for his State, on the withdrawal of the British and treatment then henceforth as a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. When he saw that clause 7 of the Indian Independence Bill did not permit that grant of Dominion Status to an Indian State. The Nizam sent a delegation to Delhi on 11 July headed by the Nawab of Chhatari, President of the Executive Council, to meet Lord Mountbatten.


      Meanwhile Laik Ali was pressing that the Hyderabad issue should be taken to the United Nations Organization. On 17 August, he wrote to Nehru that Hyderabad had decided to solicit the good offices of the United Nations Organization in order that the dispute between Hyderabad and India might be resolved and a peaceful and enduring settlement arrived at.

      The Indian Government did not agree that Hyderabad had any right in international law to seek the intervention of the United Nations Organization or any other outside body for the settlement of the issue. And that as the Government of India regarded the Indo-Hyderabad dispute as a purely domestic one, they did not recognize the Nizam's claim to invoke the good offices of the United Nations in that connation.


       The below given are the detailed notes on the history of Ancient,medieval ,modern period of the Telangana region and also the freedom struggle, Razakar Movement and The separate Telangana agitation.



The Satavahanas rose to a political power, after the fall of the Mauryan Empire. There were twenty-nine rulers of this dynasty according to Matsya Purana. Sathavahanas ruled over the Telangana for about 400 years from the 2nd century BC. The Sathavahanas were also called Salivahanas and Satakarnis. The founder of the Sathavahana dynasty, Simukha unified the various Andhra principalities into one kingdom and became its ruler from 271 BC to 248 BC. Dharanikota near Amaravati in Guntur district was the first capital of Simukha, but later he shifted his capital to Pratishtana (Paithan in Aurangabad district).


The Satavahanas thus assumed significance as imperial rulers in succession to the Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas and Kanvas. The kings, who succeeded him, appear to have been driven, by the Sakas, out of Maharastra back to their homeland in Andhra. Gautamiputra Satakarni, the 23rd ruler of this dynasty ascended the throne in AD 62. It was time, their kingdom made a sharp recovery of the lost territories from the western Kshatrapas. Records describe him as the restorer of the glory of the Satavahanas. His kingdom included the territories of Asika, Assaka, Mulaka, Anupa, Kukura, Aparanta, Vidarbha, Akara, Saurashtra and Avanti, and the mountainous regions of Vindhya, Pariyatra, Achavata, Kanhagiri, Siritana, Sahya, Malaya, Mahendra, Sata and Chakora, and extended as far as seas on either side.  


The Gautamiputra's kingdom covered not only the peninsular India, but also the southern parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. He died in AD 86, and his successors witnessed the dismemberment of their empire. Pulumavi II succeeded Gautamiputra and ruled for about 28 years. Yajnasri Satakarni succeeded and he came into conflict with the Saka Satrap, Rudradamana, and suffered defeat, and consequently, lost all his western possessions. He continued to rule till AD 157 over a truncated dominion. His ship-marked coins suggest extensive maritime trade during his days. His passed away, marked the end of rule of the Satavahanas by 2nd century AD.


 It appeared that Dharmapuri in Karimnagar district was used as capital. The Deccan, during this period was an emporium of inland and maritime trade. The region between the rivers of Godavari and Krishna was full of ports and throbbing with activity. There was plentiful of currency to facilitate trade and the Telugus entered upon a period of great industrial, commercial and maritime activity.

 Buddhism flourished throughout the period and the rulers were also devoted to Vedic ritualism. They constructed several Buddhist Stupas, Viharas and Chaityas. Satavahanas were able rulers and loved literacy and architecture. The 17th ruler of this dynasty, Hala was a great poet and his “Gathasaptasati” in Prakrit was well received by all. Gunadhya, the minister of Hala was the author of “Brihatkadha”.


 The decline and fall of the Satavahana Empire left the Andhra country in a political chaos. Local rulers as well as invaders tried to carve out small kingdoms for themselves and to establish many dynasties. During the period from AD 180 to AD 624 Ikshvakus, Vishnukundins, Vakatakas, Pallavas, Anandagotras, Kalingas and others ruled over the Andhra area with their small kingdoms. Such instability continued to prevail until the rise of the Eastern Chalukyas.







Pulakesin II, the renowned ruler of Chalukyas conquered Vengi (near Eluru) in AD 624 and made his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana (AD 624-641) as its ruler. His dynasty known as the Eastern Chalukyas ruled for nearly four centuries. Contemporaries to the Eastern Chalukyas were the Eastern Gangas in the northeast and the Pallavas in the south. A Chalukya family ruled Vemulavada (Karimnagar district). Their rule extended over the present day Karimnagar and Nizamabad districts. As subordinate rulers loyal to the Rashtrakutas, they ruled with semi-independent status for about two centuries (AD 755-968). The Cholas attained the status of a major power in south India under the leadership of Rajaraja I (AD 985-1016).


Two rebel princes of the Eastern Chalukya family sought refuge in Rajaraja I court. The Rajaraja I utilized the claim of one of these princes, Saktivarma, as a pretext for intervening in the affairs of Vengi. He was successful in crowning Saktivarma on the throne of Vengi. From that time, the Eastern Chalukyas played a role subservient to the Cholas. The Telugu country witnessed battles between the Cholas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani who supported a rival claimant to the throne of the Vengi each time. An Eastern Chalukya Prince, Rajendra, occupied the Chola throne in AD 1070. Nevertheless, Vijayaditya VII, a cousin of Rajaraja, continued to rule over Vengi till his death in AD 1076. Then the Eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.


Though the Eastern Chalukyas originally of Kannada stock, they patronized Telugu and gave importance to it. The great epic Mahabharata was translated partly by Eastern Chalukya king, Rajaraja court poet, Nannaya in the 11th century. At the time of Chalukya conquest there were three religions: Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. Buddhism was on the wane and the resurgent Hinduism transformed the Buddhist Aramas into pilgrim centers. Hinduism enjoyed the status of a national religion throughout the kingdom. Temples were built which played an important role in the religious life of the people. In the period of seven centuries (AD 624-AD 1323), Telangana history had seen significant sea-change and it brought in all spheres of the human activity; social, religious, linguistic and literary. Kakatiyas came to power during the later half of this period and extended their rule over the entire Telugu land with the exception of a small land in the northeast.




Kakatiyas were emerged in the 12th century and they were the first feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana. They ruled over a small territory near Warangal. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II, ruled from AD 1110 to 1158 extended his rule to the south and declared his independence. 

 His successor Rudra (AD 1158-1195) pushed the kingdom to the north to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital. He faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler Mahadeva extended the kingdom to the coastal area. Ganapati succeeded him in AD 1199. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first one after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He ended the rule of the Velanati Cholas in AD 1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. Ganapati Deva had no sons, so his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in AD 1262. Some generals rebelled, under her rule. She suppressed the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered set backs at her hands and they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule.

 Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramamba in A.D.1295 and ruled till AD 1323. He extended the western border up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms and he divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships. In his time the territory had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. The Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom in AD 1303. The Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. When an army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute AD 1310.  

 When Ala-ud-din Khilji died in AD 1318, Prataparudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion from the Muslims. Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling in AD 1321.


 He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal distensions he called off the siege, and then he came back with a much bigger army in a short period. Prataparudra fought bravely. For lack of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy, who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.


 The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and the kings encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and they built forts. They played a dominant role in the defense of the realm. 


 Anumakonda and Gandikota among the giridurgas, Kandur and Narayanavanam among the vanadurgas, Divi and Kolanu among the jaladurgas, and Warangal and Dharanikota among the sthaladurgas were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period.Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favored revival of Vedic rituals. 

 They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata. Sanskrit received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas Prataparudra was a writer and he encouraged other literature.


 Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India, which influenced the political life of the Deccan.

 The most important of these temples are Palampeta, Hanamkonda The temple at Palampeta, described as the brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture. It was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in AD 1213. The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, and mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls. 


 The Thousand-Pillar Temple at Hanamkonda, built by the Kakatiya king Rudra in AD 1162, is similar in style and workmanship to the Ramappa temple. This temple dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands at the beautiful entrances to the shrine. The pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.

 It was believed that the temple in the Warangal fort was built by Ganapati and it was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called Kirti Stambhas, which face the four cardinal points of the compass. 


 After the fall of Kakatiyas, uncertainty prevailed over the region. Several small kingdoms came into existence. Musunuri Nayakas occupied Warangal from Muslims and ruled between AD 1325-1368.




         For the first time in Telangana history, it came under the yoke of an alien ruler, the Muslims, after the disastrous fall of Warangal in AD 1323. Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu established an independent Muslim State, the Bahmani kingdom in south India by revolting against the Delhi Sultanate in AD 1347. Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu waged wars to annex the two neighboring Hindu kingdoms, Warangal, under the Musunuri Nayakas, and Vijayanagar, which was under the Rayas. He occupied the area up to the river Tungabhadra in AD 1358. He then shifted his capital from Daulatabad to Gulbarga. The Bahmani rule was plagued with factions by the end of the 15th century and there came into existence the five Shahi kingdoms, the Nizamshahis of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshahis of Bijapur, the Imadshahis of Berar, the Qutbshahis of Golconda and the Baridshahis of Bidar. The rule of the Bahmani dynasty came to an end in A.D 1527. It was the Qutbshahi dynasty that played a significant role in the history of Telangana. Harihara II carried on a campaign to control over the territory against the Reddis and wrested Addanki and Srisailam areas from the Reddis. This led to clashes with the Velamas of Rachakonda in Telangana. The Rachakonda sought help from Bahmanis and this constrained Harihara II from proceeding further into Telangana. The Devaraya I (AD 1406-1422) emerged victorious and ascended the throne only to wage wars against the Bahmanis, the Velamas of Telangana and the Reddis of Kondavidu after the death of Harihara II.




The Qutub Shahi dynasty ruled for two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. Sultan Quli Qutub Shah, the founder of the dynasty, served the Bahmanis and he was appointed governor of Telangana in AD 1496. He declared independence after the death of his patron king, Mahmud Shah in AD 1518. During his 50 years rule, the Sultan Quli extended his kingdom up to Machilipatnam. His third son Jamsheed murdered him and succeeded him. Jamsheed reigned for seven years till AD 1550 but remained maligned.


His youngest brother, Ibrahim, who was thirteen at the time of his father's assassination, fled to Vijayanagar and took refuge there. He learned the art of administration. Ibrahim returned to Golconda and ascended the throne After Jamsheed's death in AD 1550.


Ibrahim Qutub Shah was the real architect of the Golconda kingdom. He ruled the kingdom for about 30 years from AD 1550 to AD 1580. He organised the central and provincial governments and brought them into close contact. He also introduced an efficient intelligence service. Ibrahim dug lakes and tanks and laid out towns and gardens. He also encouraged local language Telugu and patronized Telugu scholars and poets like, Telaganarya and Gangadhara.

 Ibrahim's son, Muhammad Quli was a great writer and a builder. The next period of forty years led by Ibrahim's son and grandson was an era of peace and prosperity. The city of Hyderabad was laid in AD 1591 with magnificent buildings, straight roads and other civic amenities. He invited many Persians to settle down in Hyderabad and Machilipatnam. He was a scholar and a poet, composed a large number of poems in the Deccani language.


 His nephew and son-in-law Sultan Muhammad in AD 1612 succeeded Muhammad Quli. Sultan Muhammad was highly religious and a model of virtue and piety. He followed his uncle in promoting learning and architecture. The great mosque known as Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad was designed and its foundation laid by him. Sultan Muhammad's premature death in AD 1626 was a sad prelude to the decline and fall of Golconda. 


 His minor son, Abdullah Qutub Shah, who was indolent, succeeded him. The fall of Ahmadnagar in AD 1633 to the Moghuls exposed Golconda. Abdullah Qutub Shah acknowledged the suzerainty of the Moghuls and signed a treaty in AD 1636.


He was reduced to vassalage and interfered in day-to-day administration and encouraged fissiparous tendencies.  Abdullah Qutub Shah died in AD 1672 and was succeeded by his third son-in-law, Abul Hassan Qutub Shah, popularly known as Tana Shah. He had a broader vision and administrative experience of a high order. He handled the domestic and foreign affairs deftly and put forth all his efforts against the Moghul tide.


 The Moghul Empire launched his campaign against both the Marathas and the Deccan Sultanates in AD 1682. His original plan was to attack on the Marathas, but later on, he suspended the plan and directed his forces against Bijapur and Golconda in AD 1685. Bijapur fell in after two months' siege, but Golconda held out for a long time. It came to an end owing to the treachery of an Afghan general, Abdullah Khan, who opened the gate in the dead of night and facilitated the capture of the fort.


The fall of Golconda in AD.1687 had far reaching consequences. So long the king Abul Hassan and his Minister, Madanna, kept their constant vigil on the English merchants.




The Moghul emperor, Aurangazeb, invaded Golconda in AD 1687. The Golconda became part of the Deccan Subha and a Nazim was appointed as an agent of the Moghul emperor. The Nazims ruled for period of 35 years.  The last one was Mubariz Khan.


The period between AD 1687 and A D 1724 saw several changes. Aurangazeb died in AD 1707. The administrative machinery of the Moghul imperial regime began to crumble and the central authority manned by successive feeble rulers gradually lost control over the provinces. The state of affairs in Deccan was worse, since it was situated far away from the capital. This enabled two foreign mercantile companies to consolidate themselves as political powers capable of subsequently playing decisive roles in shaping the destiny of the nation. They were the East India Company of England and the Compagnie de Inde Orientale of France. These trading companies had their headquarters at Madras and Pondicherry respectively and both had trade centers at Machilipatnam.




Mir Kamaruddin founded ASAF JAHIS dynasty. He was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah. He negotiated a peace treaty with Nadirshah, the Iranian invader. Mir Kamaruddin got disgusted with the intrigues that prevailed in Delhi. He assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted himself as an independent prince of Deccan, where he was a Subedar earlier. The Asaf Jahis rule over Golconda started with Auranganbad as its Capital. 


The Nizams of Asafjahi dynasty who ruled the Deccan:


(1)   Mir Kamaruddin (Nizam-ul-Mulk - Asaf Jah I) (AD 1724-1748) 

(2)   Nasir Jung (AD 1748-1751) 

(3)   Muzaffar Jung (AD 1750-1751) 

(4)   Salabat Jung (AD 1751-1761) 

(5)   Nizam Ali Khan - Asaf Jah II (AD 1762-1803) 

(6)   Nizam III Sikandar Jah (AD 1803-1829)

(7)   Nizam IV -- Nasir-ud-Daula (AD 1829-1857)

(8)   Nizam V -- Afzal-ud-Daula (AD 1857-1869)

(9)   Nizam VI -- Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan (AD.1869-1911)

(10) Nizam VII -- Mir Osman Ali Khan (AD.1911-1948 September). 


The Hyderabad was founded in AD 1590 and built by Muhammad Quli, the fifth king of the Qutbshahi dynasty. The rule of the Nizams lasted not only from AD 1724 to 1948 but also concerned a large territory with diverse language groups. The State of Hyderabad extended from Narmada to Trichinapally and from Machilipatnam to Bijapur under Asaf Jah I. During the period of Afzal-ud-Daula (AD 1857-1869), it was estimated to be 95,337 sq.miles, which was more than 450 miles each way. After Nizam I, Asaf Jah, died in AD 1748, there was tussle for power among his son, Nasar Jung, and his grandson Muzaffar Jung. The British supported Nasar Jung whereas Muzaffar Jung got support from the French. These two heirs were subsequently killed by Nawabs of Kurnool and Cuddapah in AD 1750 and AD 1751 respectively. The third son of Nizam I, Salabat Jung became the ruler as Nizam.


Hostilities remained in India between the French and the English in AD 1758 on the outbreak of seven-year war in Europe in AD 1756. As a result, the French lost their power in India and consequently the French also lost their influence at Hyderabad. Nizam Ali Khan (Nizam II) dislodged Salabat Jung and proclaimed himself as Nizam in AD 1762. The Nizam II moved the capital of the Deccan from Aurangabad to Hyderabad in 1763. Nizam's sovereignty had declined considerably in the later part of 18th century and he was compelled to sign six treaties with British.  

The British agreed to furnish Nizam Ali Khan with a force when required and pay Rs. 9 lakhs when troops are not required, in return for the Northern Circars in AD 1766. He signed another treaty conferring the Northern Circars to the British and the payment by the British was reduced to Rs.7 lakhs in AD 1768. He also signed another treaty, in which he surrendered the Guntur circar in AD 1788. The Nizam had conspired with Hyder Ali of Mysore and the Peshwa of the Marathas to drive away the British. The British learned about his designs and they marched against the Nizam, who had to sue for peace agreeing to the presence of British army, artillery and cavalry at Hyderabad. The Nizam was compelled to disassociate himself from Hyder Ali through another treaty. He signed another treaty with the British altering the earlier treaties to increase the strength of the English army in Hyderabad in AD 1800. The Nizam had to cede to the company an area comprising the districts of Rayalaseema and Bellary, in lieu of the cost of maintenance of the force. The Nizam lost not only the territory but also reputation and power. 


The Telugu land was divided into major divisions: one that came to be popularly called Telangana under the feudal rule of the Nizam, accounting approximately one-third of the entire land and the other, broadly designated as Andhra, in British India. The English cantonment, raised on the other side of Hussain Sagar, was named after Nizam III - Sikandar Jah (AD 1803-1829) as Secunderabad. The Afzal Gunj Bridge or the Nayapul, over the river Musi was constructed and established a General Hospital under the rule (AD  1857-1869) of Nizam V, Afzal-ud-Daula. 


The modern era of the development of the twin cities began soon after the last flood on the river Musi in AD 1908. The flood had shattered the lives of many people living in Hyderabad. Mr. M.Vishweshwarayya, the great engineer of Mysore, was specially appointed as adviser to the Nizam's Government to suggest measures for flood control and improvement of the city. Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were constructed as result of his suggestion in AD 1917. These two dams not only controlled the floods, but also supplied drinking water to the city. Another important step taken for the development of the city was the formation of the City Improvement Board in AD 1912, which paid greater attention to the construction of roads, markets, housing sites and shopping centers in the city. The Nizam VII, Osman Ali Khan, moved to Kingkothi, the northern suburb of the city in AD 1914, which helped in the development of its surroundings. Several public utility services were commissioned in AD 1922, which include electricity (AD 1923), rail connection to Bangalore (AD1928), and bus service (AD 1932). The bus routes radiated from the capital to all the district headquarters in AD 1936. The Madras-Karachi Air Service was linked with Hyderabad with Hakimpet as landing facility in AD 1935. Under the rule of Nizam VII, many building were constructed. They include Legislative Assembly, Hyderabad and Secunderabad railway stations, the High Court, City College, the Asafia Library, the Unani Hospital, and the Osmania University. The Nizam VII, The Osman Ali Khan, can be called as the maker of modern Hyderabad. The buildings constructed during his reign are impressive and represent a rich variety of architecture. Examples are the magnificent Osmania University, the sprawling Osmania General Hospital in the Mughal style, the lofty High Court in Indo-Saracenic style, the stately well-proportioned Legislative Assembly building in Saracenic-Rajasthani style. The Falaknuma, built by Nawab Viquar-ul-Umra, a Paigha Noble in AD.1892 has become a landmark like Charminar.

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